Normal menstrual bleeding lasts 2-7 days with a loss of around 40ml of blood.

Abnormal premenopausal bleeding is anything that differs from “normal”.

Abnormal is a loss of 80ml or more and can result in anemia.

Occasionally blood clots are seen.

Ovulation bleeding – or spotting in between menses is common.

Pelvic exam may be helpful as would Ultrasound and blood work.

Oligomenorrhea  -  abnormally infrequent bleeding.

Polymenorrhea  -  abnormally frequent bleeding.

Metrorrhagia  -  Uterine bleeding between menses.

Can be linked to a variety of problems such as cancer, infection, miscarriages, and many additional causes

Treatment

-  Depends on the underlying cause
-  Cryosurgery
-  Electrocautery
-  Hysterectomy
-  others

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