AML 1What is Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)?

It is one of the 4 main types of Leukemia and can also be referred to as Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

This type of Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells, specifically the myeloid cells. It affects the white blood cells (WBC) within the Bone Marrow. This causes problems with the production of the normal blood cells.

Progression is quite rapid from onset to severe symptoms. This condition affects are mostly seen in adults and rarely in those of younger ages.

A small amount of those who are treated actually become cured

The other major types of Leukemia are:

1.)  Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

2.)  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

3.)  Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

What are some Symptoms of AML?

–  Fatigue
–  Weakness
–  Fevers
–  Weight loss
–  Bone pain
–  Joint pain
–  Bruising
–  Skin Inflammation
–  Loss of appetite
–  Swelling in legs
–  Enlargement of lymph nodes
–  Enlargement of Spleen – usually less then ALL
–  Enlargement of Liver
–  others

Potential Causes

–  Specific cause is unknown
–  Chemical exposure
–  Radiation
–  Genetics

AML

Let’s look at the Different Classifications

 

1.)  M0
–  Minimally differentiated
–  Acute myeloblastic leukemia

2.)  M1
–  No maturation
–  Acute myeloblastic leukemia

3.)  M2
–  + Granulocytic maturation
–  Acute myeloblatic leukemia

4.)  M3
–  Acute promyelocytic leukemia

5.)  M4
–  Acute myelomonoctic leukemia

6.)  M4eo
–  Bone marrow eosinophilia

7.)  M5
–  Acyte monoblastic leukemia or acute monocytic leukemia

8.)  M6
–  Acute erythroid leukemia

9.)  M7
–  Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

How is the Diagnosis of AML made?

–  Blood work is essential to diagnosis

–  Bone marrow biopsy is essential

Potential Treatment Options

Chemotherapy

1.)  Induction: Attempt for complete remission

Cytarabine – used for 7 days
Daunorubicin – used for 3 days
.  Idarubicin

All-trans-retinoic-acid  (ATRA)  –  typically used for M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia

2.)  Consolidation:

–  To prevent relapse and the non-detectable disease
–  Bone marrow transplant is often required
–  Chemotherapy is often required

AML that relapses

Bone Marrow transplant

gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg)

arsenic trioxide – typically used for M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia

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