AML 1Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is one of the 4 main types of Leukemia.

It can also be referred to as Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

The other major types of Leukemia are:

1.)  Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

2.)  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

3.)  Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

AML

This type of Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells, specifically the myeloid cells.

Affects the white blood cells (WBC) within the Bone Marrow

This causes problems with the production of the normal blood cells.

Progression is quite rapid from onset to severe symptoms.

Very often affect adults and rarely in younger ages

A small amount of those who are treated actually become cured

Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Fevers
  • Weight loss
  • Increased risk of infection
  • Bone pain
  • Joint pain
  • Bruising
  • Skin Inflammation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling in legs
  • Shortness of breath
  • Enlargement of Spleen – usually less then ALL
  • Enlargement of Liver
  • others

 

Potential Causes

  • Specific cause is unknown
  • Chemical exposure
    adiation
  • Genetics

AML

 

Classification

M0  –  Minimally differentiated – acute myeloblastic leukemia
M1
  –  No maturation – acute myeloblastic leukemia
M2  –  + Granulocytic maturation – acute myeloblatic leukemia
M3  –  Acute promyelocytic leukemia
M4
  –  Acute myelomonoctic leukemia

M4eo  –  Bone marrow eosinophilia

M5 –  Acyte monoblastic leukemia or acute monocytic leukemia
M6
–  Acute erythroid leukemia
M7  –  Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

 

Diagnosis

Blood work is essential to diagnosis

Bone marrow biopsy is essential

 

Treatment

Chemotherapy

Induction: Attempt for complete remission

Cytarabine – used for 7 days
Daunorubicin – used for 3 days
. Idarubicin

All-trans-retinoic-acid  (ATRA)  –  typically used for M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia

Consolidation: To prevent relapse and the non-detectable disease

Bone marrow transplant is often required

Chemotherapy is often required

AML that relapses

Bone Marrow transplant

gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg)

arsenic trioxide – typically used for M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia

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