Acute Liver Failure is the rapid development of dysfunction or failure of the Liver [hepatocellular dysfunction].
Encephalopathy (a mental status changes) is one of the many complications of this condition.
Jaundice and impaired protein syntheses are other complications.
Usually occurs when a history of liver disease, Hepatitis, Alcohol, or other cause is present.
However, in some cases there is an absence of a prior history of liver disease.
The Liver is a central mode of control for many enzymes and detoxification of the blood
– Severe damage to liver cells
– Decrease coagulation
– Increase platelet function
– Renal failure is seen in 40-50% of the time
*** Individuals can present as hepatocellular injury, hepatic encephalopathy, infection, GI bleed, or multiple organ failure
– Reye Syndrome
– Wilsons Disease
– and others
Classification [from 1993]:
Hyperacute as within 1 week
Acute as 8-28 days
Subacute as 4-12 weeks
– Physical Exam
– Lab work
– CT of liver/abdoman
– Hospital Admission is often necessary
– Nutrition improvement
– Liver transplant