220px-Jaundice08Acute Liver Failure is the rapid development of dysfunction or failure of the Liver [hepatocellular dysfunction].

Encephalopathy (a mental status changes) is one of the many complications of this condition.

Jaundice and impaired protein syntheses are other complications.

Usually occurs when a history of liver disease, Hepatitis, Alcohol, or other cause is present.

However, in some cases there is an absence of a prior history of liver disease.

The Liver is a central mode of control for many enzymes and detoxification of the blood

Symptoms:

–  Jaundice
–  Severe damage to liver cells
–  Decrease coagulation
–  Thormbocytopenia
–  Increase platelet function
–  Renal failure is seen in 40-50% of the time
–  Encephalopathy

*** Individuals can present as hepatocellular injury, hepatic encephalopathy, infection, GI bleed, or multiple organ failure

liverPotential Causes

–  Drugs
–  Alcohol
–  Viruses
–  Toxins
–  Reye Syndrome
–  Wilsons Disease
–  and others


liver failureDrug Examples Include:
–  Acetaminophen – most common drug
–  Halothane
–  Isoniazid
–  Valproate
–  Sulfonamides
–  Phenytoin
–  Thiazolidinedione
–  Some herbal remedies
–  and others

Classification [from 1993]:

Hyperacute as within 1 week
Acute as 8-28 days
Subacute as 4-12 weeks


Diagnosis

–  Physical Exam

–  Lab work

–  CT of liver/abdoman

Treatment:

 –  Hospital Admission is often necessary

–  Nutrition improvement

 –  Liver transplant

  –  Dialysis

 

 

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