220px-Jaundice08Acute Liver Failure is the rapid development of dysfunction or failure of the Liver [hepatocellular dysfunction].

Encephalopathy (a mental status changes) is one of the many complications of this condition.

Jaundice and impaired protein syntheses are other complications.

Usually occurs when a history of liver disease, Hepatitis, Alcohol, or other cause is present.

However, in some cases there is an absence of a prior history of liver disease.

The Liver is a central mode of control for many enzymes and detoxification of the blood

Symptoms:

-  Jaundice
-  Severe damage to liver cells
-  Decrease coagulation
-  Thormbocytopenia
-  Increase platelet function
-  Renal failure is seen in 40-50% of the time
-  Encephalopathy

*** Individuals can present as hepatocellular injury, hepatic encephalopathy, infection, GI bleed, or multiple organ failure

liverPotential Causes

-  Drugs
-  Alcohol
-  Viruses
-  Toxins
-  Reye Syndrome
-  Wilsons Disease
-  and others


liver failureDrug Examples Include:
-  Acetaminophen – most common drug
-  Halothane
-  Isoniazid
-  Valproate
-  Sulfonamides
-  Phenytoin
-  Thiazolidinedione
-  Some herbal remedies
-  and others

Classification [from 1993]:

Hyperacute as within 1 week
Acute as 8-28 days
Subacute as 4-12 weeks


Diagnosis

-  Physical Exam

-  Lab work

-  CT of liver/abdoman

Treatment:

   -  Hospital Admission is often necessary

-  Nutrition improvement

   -  Liver transplant

   -  Dialysis
 

 

 

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