cerebral_aneurysm

An aneurysm is when a blood vessel inside the brain or heart becomes increased in size or takes on a balloon like appearance.

It can be caused by a weakening of the wall of the blood vessels involved.

The cause of the weakening of the wall can be induced by diseases or hereditary components.

They are more often seen in Arteries than Veins.

Two primary locations:

1.)   Aorta  -  Heart
2.)   Circle of Willis  -  Brain

-  other locations include popliteal in venous system as well as other sites.

When the size of the aneurysm increases, so does the risk for a rupture.

Compilations of a possible rupture include:

-   Severe hemorrhage
-   Blood loss
-   Loss of brain function
-   Coma
-   Death

Symptoms:

-    Headache
-    Blurry vision
-    Confusion
-    Dizziness

aneurysm_aortic

-    Nausea
-    Vomiting
-    Chest pain
-    Chest discomfort
-    Difficulty breathing
-    Fainting

Risk Factors include:

Diabetes
Obesity
High blood pressure
Family history
Smoking
Alcohol
Copper deficiency

Causes:

-      Weakness in wall due to unknown reason
-      Weakness due to atherosclerosis
-      Syphilis
-      Trauma

CT exam can help evaluate and locate ruptured cerebral aneurysms
-    Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is often seen

Lumbar puncture can be helpful to find blood in cerebrospinal fluid.

aneurysms

Treatment:

Watch and wait

Surgery

Hypertension

Endovascular coiling – placement into artery of a stent like coils.
– often used for the brain

Angioplasty with stent placement
– often used for the heart

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