Cholestasis is an impairment of bile flow from the liver to the intestines.

This is not specifically a disease itself but rather a symptom or result of other diseases.

It can also be as a result of decreased production of Bile that is typically formed in the Liver.

Stoppage of the bile can be categorized as obstructive or metabolic

Obstructive can be as a result of a gallstone or a malignancy

Metabolic occurs due to an adverse effect of a medicaiton or a genetic causation.

Increased conjugated bilirubin

Mild increase in liver enzymes can be seen

 

Symptoms

–  Hypercholemia [increased serum bile salt concentration]
–  Pruritus  [Itching]
–  Jaundice
–  Dark urine
– Hyperlipidemia
–  Xanthomas
– Failure to thrive

 

Diagnosis

Ultrasound and CT may be benifical
Biliary nuclear medicine study [HIDA]
Liver biopsy

 

Treatments

–  Ursodeoxycholic acid
–  Cholestyramine
–  Phenobarbital
–  Phytonadione (Vitamin K)
– Alpha tocopherol (Vitamin E)
–  Vitamin A
–  Ergocalciferol  (Vitamin D)
–  Antibiotics
–  Surgery
–  ERC
–  Percutaneous transhepatic Cholangiography
–  Removal of Gallbladder if appropriate

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