Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is one form of a serious and life changing condition of Diabetes.

It has also been called or referred to as “adult-onset diabetes“.

This condition is fundamentally different then Diabetes Type 1 .

Involvement of diabetes type 2 is associated with a resistance to insulin or a decrease in sensitivity to glucose.

Type 1 Diabetes is a result of beta cell destruction in the Pancreas.

Remember, the pancreas is where insulin is produced.

Type 2 Diabetes can also have a decreased amount of insulin production…but is often for unknown reasons.

Cell receptors on tissues and organs that normally allow for glucose to enter is where the resistance occurs.

Blood sugar levels in the blood are often elevated caused by elevated insulin.

Diabetes Type 2 is often initially managed by changing diet and increasing exercise.

However, if the condition progresses, medications may be needed.

This condition often affects the obese or overweight but not always.


By the Numbers:

In the United States almost 24 million people suffer from Diabetes and almost 90% of those have been diagnosed with Type 2

Worldwide – Diabetes is seen in almost 150 million persons and that number is believed to double in the next 1-2 decades.

Initially the large majority of those diagnosed with Type 2 were adults, however, recently there has been a large increase of children who are diagnoses – and it is often paralleled to the increasing number of obese children.


Potential Causes:

  • Obesity
  • Age
  • Genetics
  • Environmental exposures



  • Glucose in urine  [Glycosuria]
  • Increased frequency to urinate
  • Increased thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased or blurred Vision


1.)  Hypoglycemia – can be seen following medication
2.)  Hyperglycemia
3.)  Cardiovascular Disease
4.)  Chronic Renal Failure
5.)  Blindness or retinal damage
6.)  Diabetic Ketoacidosis
7.)  Nerve Damage
8.)  Difficulty for wound healing
9.)  Amputation
10.)  Erectile Dysfunction
11.)  Coma
12.)  Death


Diagnosis is often seen on a fasting blood draw

Glucose Tolerance Test [GTT] – this test checks the plasma glucose after 2 hours of oral glucose.

Continued checking of blood sugars

HA1c is often routinely checked to evaluate the progression of the condition.


1.)  Proper Nutrition
2.)  Regular Exercise
3.)  Routine Screening


  • Self-Monitoring by Blood Glucose Monitoring
  • Diabetic Diet
  • Limit Carbohydrates
  • Limit Calories
  • Medications
  • Weight loss



  • Metformin


First Generation

  • Acetohexamide
  • Chlorpropamide
  • Tolbutamide
  • Tolazamide

Second Generation

  • Glipizide
  • Gliclazide
  • Glibenclamide  [Glyburide]
  • Gliquidone
  • Glyclopyramide

Third Generation

  • Glimepiride

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs)

  • Rosiglitazine (Avandia)
  • Pioglitazone (Actos)


  • Repaglinide  [Prandin].
  • Nateglinide  [Starlix]

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors

  • Acarbose
  • Miglitol


ACE Inhibitors

  • This medications is recommended by the HOPE study
  • Does not specifically decrease blood sugars
  • Can help protect against kidney kidney and other problems often associated with diabetes.
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