The Endocrine System is a complicated system of hormone production, hormone release, the control of several systems, organs, and  processes throughout the body.

This largely includes glands that create the hormones or chemicals involved.

The hormones involved  are expansive and are capable of accomplishing a variety of actions dependent on their use and destination.

The Circulatory System plays a huge role in the movement and travel of the hormones throughout the body. A feed back system of Homeostasis also for the regulation of several areas.

The Regulation System Allows Control of the Following Areas:

–  Development
–  Puberty
–  Metabolism
–  Function of tissue
–  Function of organs and systems
–  Mood
–  other

Important Organs of the Endocrine System

–  Pineal gland
–  Pituitary gland
–  Thyroid Gland
–  Thymus
–  Adrenal Gland
–  Pancreas
–  Ovaries
–  Uterus
–  Placenta
–  Testes

Important types of signaling are the following:

1.)  Endocrine gland – Glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood

2.)  Exocrine gland –  Glands that secrete hormones into a duct system

3.)  Autocrine –  Can target the same cell

4.)  Paracrine –  Can target a cell in the same area

Additional Glands Involved

Hypothalamus

–  The ability of the hypothalamus is vast and amazing.

–  It receives several signals from the body itself as well as outside sources

Pineal Body

–  This is a very small gland whose main purpose is the production of melatonin.

–  Melatonin is a hormone that affects the sleep and wake patterns.

Pituitary gland

–  This is a small but very important gland in the endocrine system.

–  It is found just adjacent to the hypothalamus at the base of the brain.

–  The function of this gland is the release of several types of hormones that affect balance for the body.

There are three distinct lobes:

1.)  Anterior Pituitary  (Adenohypophysis)
2.)  Posterior Pituitary  (Neurohypophysis)
3.)  Intermediate Pituitary  (Pars intermedia)

Thyroid

–  It is an extremely large and essential gland of the body.  The body is largely in control of the metabolism of the body.

–  Burning of energy, hormonal control and warmth of the body are often attributed to the thyroid.

Several hormones are important from the thyroid:

1.)  T4 –  thyroxine
2.)  T3 –  triiodothyronine
3.)  Calcitonin

Parathyroid

–  The function of the parathyroid is in regards to calcium levels.

–  Calcium is largely important in the muscular and Nervous systems to allow for muscular movement as well as nerve conduction.

  –  PTH – Parathyroid hormone – is produced in the parathyroid gland

Testes

–  The functions of the testicles are production of sperm and male sex hormones

–  Endocrine control is from specific hormones that are produced in the anterior pituitary

Ovaries

–  Ovaries secrete sex hormones – Progesterone and Estrogen – these hormones help control the sexual organs and characteristics.

–  The monthly menstruation is closely regulated by hormones from the pituitary gland and those found in the ovaries.

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