AML 1Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is one of the 4 main types of Leukemia.

It can also be referred to as Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

The other major types of Leukemia are:

1.)  Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

2.)  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

3.)  Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

 

AML

–  This type of Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells, specifically the myeloid cells.

–  Affects the white blood cells (WBC) within the Bone Marrow

–  This causes problems with the production of the normal blood cells.

–  Progression is quite rapid from onset to severe symptoms.

–  Very often affect adults and rarely in younger ages

–  A small amount of those who are treated actually become cured

 

Symptoms

–  Fatigue
–  Weakness
–  Fevers
–  Weight loss
–  Bone pain
–  Joint pain
–  Bruising
–  Skin Inflammation
–  Loss of appetite
–  Swelling in legs
–  Enlargement of lymph nodes
–  Enlargement of Spleen – usually less then ALL
–  Enlargement of Liver
–  others

Potential Causes

–  Specific cause is unknown
–  Chemical exposure
–  Radiation
–  Genetics

AML

 

Classification

1.)  M0

–  Minimally differentiated
–  Acute myeloblastic leukemia

2.)  M1

–  No maturation
–  Acute myeloblastic leukemia

3.)  M2

–  + Granulocytic maturation
–  Acute myeloblatic leukemia

4.)  M3

–  Acute promyelocytic leukemia

5.)  M4

–  Acute myelomonoctic leukemia

6.)  M4eo

–  Bone marrow eosinophilia

7.)  M5

–  Acyte monoblastic leukemia or acute monocytic leukemia

8.)  M6

–  Acute erythroid leukemia

9.)  M7

–  Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

 

Diagnosis

–  Blood work is essential to diagnosis

–  Bone marrow biopsy is essential

 

Treatment

Chemotherapy

1.)  Induction: Attempt for complete remission

Cytarabine – used for 7 days
Daunorubicin – used for 3 days
. Idarubicin

All-trans-retinoic-acid  (ATRA)  –  typically used for M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia

2.)  Consolidation:

–  To prevent relapse and the non-detectable disease

–  Bone marrow transplant is often required

–  Chemotherapy is often required

AML that relapses

Bone Marrow transplant

gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg)

arsenic trioxide – typically used for M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia

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