AIDs Dementia Complex is also known as HIV encephalopathy and HIV dementia

This disorder is associated with HIV and AIDS and affects the neurological system.

The typical symptoms affect the Brain and several cell types, macrophages and microglia, and causes encephalopathy.

Neurotoxins from the brain cells involved secrete neurotoxins from the host involved and the HIV viruses.

Typically symptoms begin after years of HIV infection.

Can be seen in up to 20% of HIV patients in Western Countries


– Dysfunction of motor movement
– Difficulty with concentration
– Fatigue
– Confusion
– Mental change


Stage 0 – Normal mental status and normal motor function

Stage 0.5 – Very minimal symptoms but the overall symptoms do not affect daily activity level

Stage 1 – Mild symptoms are present and daily activity level is somewhat affected

Stage 2 – Moderate symptoms and daily activity level is greatly affected.  Still can perform at a level for self care

Stage 3 – Severe symptoms that affect daily life with memory difficulties, difficulty walking without assistance, problems with conversation

Stage 4 – This is the end stage portion of the disease – Practically unable to talk or otherwise communicate.  Unable to walk


–  MRI and CT may be somewhat effective

–  Lumbar puncture

–  Blood work

–  Physical Exam

–  History of HIV


–  Treatment is very difficult

–  Consists of treatment for AIDS/HIV

–  Future research points to treatment involving brain cells involved in this disease.

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