AIDs is also referred to as Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
This is a serious condition that affects the Immune System.
The cause is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The result of this virus is a change in the metabolism and immune protection of the body.
Because of severity and prevalence this condition has been classified as a pandemic.
As of 2007 – over 30 million people are believed to have this disease throughout the world.
Over 2 million have died and many have been children.
There is currently no cure.
Worldwide Prevalence and History
- 70 – 80 % of those who have died from AIDS have been in Africa
- Africa is believed to be where HIV originated from.
- Believed to have originated in the 19th or 20th century
- AIDs in the U.S. was first recognized in 1981
- Weight loss
- Swollen glands
Specific increased risks
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a retrovirus that affects the immune system
- There are several strains of this virus
- CD4 T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells are affected
- Once a number of CD4 T-cells are destroyed HIV is reclassified as AIDS
- Without treatment survival is around 9.5 years
- Progression can vary from a few weeks to months to over 20 years
Transmission of this virus
Occurs from contact of mucous membrane
- Preseminal fluid
- Vaginal fluid
Types of transmission
- Anal intercourse
- Vaginal intercourse
- Oral intercourse
- IV drugs use with used needles
- Contaminated hypodermic needles
- Breast feeding
- Blood transfusion
- Unprotected anal intercourse has a greater risk than vaginal or oral intercourse
- HIV can be passed through insertive and receptive oral sex
- Sexual assault increases the risk
- Condoms do improve the risk but risk is still present
- The presence of additional sexually transmitted diseases increases the risk for transmission
- A single encounter is at less risk than a patterned relationship
Blood born pathogen
Seen in IV drug users, sharing needles, blood transfusions, hemophiliacs, and contact with blood products
Tattoos and piercings are also at risk
Needle sharing affects over 25% of cases in N. America, Europe, and China
A single prick from a needle of an HIV infected person has a risk of 1 in 150
If treatment medications are taken following the incident that number decreases.
Unsafe healthcare injections are uncommon but can account for 2% of new cases in Africa
Currently blood transfusion is a relatively low risk – but may account for 5% of cases worldwide
- A common finding or complication with AIDs
- Also a finding with AIDs
- Multi-drug resistance can be a serious problem
- Inflammation of the esophagus
- Disease caused by a parasite
Affects the Brain
Can also affect the eyes and lungs
- Caused by an immune reaction in the brain
- Cells affected are macrophages and microglia
- Difficulty with motor movement and behavior are seen
- Increased prevalence of infections with additional virus
- Human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human herpesvirus 8
- Cervical Cancer
- A cancer that is caused by a virus
- Affects the skin, lungs, mouth, and intestines
- Including Burkitt’s lymphoma and other lymphoma
- Often seen in those with a poor outcome