bronchitis_diagram

Bronchitis is an Inflammation of the airways that includes the Trachea, Bronchi, and Bronchioles.

This condition can be seen in children and infants as well as adults and the elderly.

Difficulty breathing, cough, and other symptoms can indicate that the Lungs are affected as well.

Inflammation of these air passages can lead to an increase in mucus, irritation, and swelling.

Coughing results to clear the passage and as a reflex to the problem.

Bronchitis is fundamentally a different medical condition than Pneumonia, though pneumonia may be a complication of untreated bronchitis.

Many of their symptoms may seem similar.

 

Symptoms

  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Difficulty Breathing
  • Nasal congestion
  • Mucous
  • Blood in cough
  • Mucus in cough
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Sore Throat
  • Headache
  • Muscle Aches
  • Others

 

Types:

1.)  Acute Bronchitis

2.) Chronic Bronchitis

 

Acute Bronchitis

  • 90 % of Cases are Virus
  • Viruses involved include: Rhinovirus, Coronavirus, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza, Influenza, RSV, and more
  • Bacteria can invade in a person with a Chronic lung condition.
  • The bacteria involved may be: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella, or others.
  • Fungal infection could be another cause for acute symptoms
  • Including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and others
  • Other things like smoke, pollution, and chemicals can also cause Acute Symptoms.

bronchitis

 

Chronic Bronchitis

  • Often caused by chemicals, tobacco smoke, dust, irritating fumes.
  • Has to do more with irritation or structural problems than infection.
  • These are more long standing lung and breathing problems.
  • Some symptoms are similar to acute phase
  • Typically no fever, chills, nausea or Muscle aches are seen
  • Symptoms are more related to the continued cough or difficulty breathing
  • Treatment is also different.
  • Management is more the key with these cases.

 

Diagnosis

  • Usually physical exam is most essential tool
  • Blood tests can be done
  • Chest X-ray is helpful to differentiate between Pneumonia and Bronchitis

 

Treatment

Viral Infection

  • Treat symptoms
  • No curative medication
  • Antibiotics are unhelpful

Bacterial Infections

Antibiotics

  • Septra  (Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole)
  • Erythromycin
  • Cephalosporin such as Cefaclor
  • Amoxicillin
  • Augmentin
  • Azithromycin
  • Doxycycline
  • Clarithromycin

 

Overall Treatment

  • Acetaminophen [Tylenol]
  • Aspirin
  • Ibuprofen [Motrin, Advil]

Humidifier

OTC medications

  • Robitussin
  • Mucinex
  • Vicks
  • others

Bronchodilator Inhalers

  • In some case hospitalization may be necessary
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