Cerebellum

This region of the Brain plays a crucial role in the movement of the body.

The cerebellum is located in the “hindbrain” or near the brainstem. It contains more than half of all neurons in the brain

There are more than 200 million fibers that act as input triggers in the cerebellum.

Increased age causes changes to the cerebellum including size, amount of white matter, and others.

Function of the Cerebellum is as follows:

1.)  Sensory perception
2.)  Motor Control
3.)  Coordination
4.)  Muscle Control

The Central Nervous System of the Nervous system is the controlling system of this region of the brain.

This means that this area of the brain is responsible for balance, coordination, and even posture.

Voluntary movements are coordinated through the Cerebellum.

Three Divisions

1.)  Anterior lobe
2.)  Posterior lobe
3.)  Flocculonodular Lobe

Deep Nuclei – is the main center of communication

Layers of the Cerebellar Cortex

1.)  Granular layer – this is the innermost layer of the cortex and it contains 3 different cell types.

A.)  Granule cells
B.)  Unipolar brush cells
C.)  Golgi cells

These cells are some of the smallest neurons in the brain. They are also the most numerous. It is estimated that there are 50 billion, which means about 75% of the brain’s neurons are granule cells.

2.)  Purkinje layer – this is the middle layer.

These cells are some of the most distinctive neurons in the brain. They are distinguished by the shape of a dendritic tree.

The large cells of the Purkinje cells are packed into a narrow layer, a single cell thick, and this is called the Purkinje layer.

–  Purkinje cells are found here that provides its only source of “output”.

–  Input can also be seen here as well.

3.)  Molecular layer – this is the top, outermost layer

This layer contains the flattened dendritic trees of the Purkinje cells and a large number of parallel fibers. These fibers reach up from the granular layer and penetrate through the Purkinje cell dendritic trees at right angles.

1.) Stellate  – synapse into Purkinje Cells
2.) Basket Cells – synapse into Purkinje Cells