cervical cancer

Also referred to as Carcinoma of Cervix

Dysplasia of the cervix can lead to cervical cancer.  Dysplasia can be classified as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia CIN I – CIN III

Cancer first appears in the superficial layers of the tissue of the cervix, and this is referred to as “in situ”.

Human papillomavirus(HPV) can lead to dysplasia which can in turn lead to cancer.

HPV is responsible for almost all cervical cancers.


   -    Metrorrhagia
   -    Spotting
   -    Cervical ulceration
   -    Foul odor
   -    Bloody or purulent discharge
   -    Bladder dysfunction
   -    Rectal dysfunction

***  –  many individuals don’t exhibit symptoms until the cancer has progressed dramatically

Biopsy or Curettage are often necessary to produce a definite diagnosis.

Staging occurs with biopsy and is according to “depth of penetration” of the malignant or cancer cells.


Stage 0  –  Carcinoma in situ

Stage I –  Carcinoma only in cervix
       IA   -   Only visible by microscope – no visible lesions
           .      IA1 – depth not greater than 3 mm and no wider than 7mm
           .      IA2 – depth 3mm-5mm and no wider than 7 mm

Stage IB  -  Clinical lesions only on cervix or greater in size than IA
       IB  –  All gross lesions, even if superficial, are IB
           .      IB1 – Are not greater than 4 mm
           .      IB2 – Are greater than 4 mm

Stage II  –  Cancer extends past cervix but not into the pelvic wall.
Upper two thirds of vagina are involved

       IIA – No obvious parametrial involvement
       IIB – There is parametrial involvement

Stage III – Cancer extends to lower ends of vagina

       IIIA – No extension into pelvic sidewall
       IIIB – Extension into pelvic wall and/or kidney

Stage IV – Cancer extends into pelvic wall and/or bladder or rectum

       IVA – Spread of growth into adjacent organs
       IVB – Spread of growth into distant organs

A large complication is metastases to other organs.

In other words, cancer from cervix can be found in other places through out the body.


Prophylactic vaccination with Gardasil.

It is recommended for women 9 to 26.

Another vaccine on that was approved in October of 2009  is Cervarix

Around the same time – Gardasil became approved for vaccination in boys, not just girls


   –   Hysterectomy may be appropriate
   –   Lymph node removal when necessary
   -   Cone biopsy
   -   Radiation
   -   More advance surgery
   -   Chemotherapy
           .      Cisplatin based chemotherapy
           .      Hycamtin

Prognosis is limited

Stage O   –   99-100%
Stage IA   –   >95%
Stage IB-IIA   –   80-90%
Stage IIB   –   65%
Stage III   –   40%
Stage IV   –   20%

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