Cholestasis is where there is an impairment of bile flow from the liver to the intestines. This is not specifically a disease itself but rather a symptom or result of other diseases.

It can also be as a result of decreased production of Bile that is typically formed in the Liver. Stoppage of the bile can be categorized as obstructive or metabolic

Obstructive Cholestasis can be the result of a gallstone or a malignancy. Metabolic occurs due to an adverse effect of a medication or a genetic causation. Increased conjugated bilirubin. There can be a mild increase in liver enzymes.

Symptoms

–  Hypercholemia [increased serum bile salt concentration]
–  Pruritus  [Itching]
–  Jaundice
–  Dark urine
–  Hyperlipidemia
–  Xanthomas
–  Failure to thrive

Diagnosis

–  Ultrasound and CT may be benifical
–  Biliary nuclear medicine study [HIDA]
–  Liver biopsy

Treatments

–  Ursodeoxycholic acid
–  Cholestyramine
–  Phenobarbital
–  Phytonadione (Vitamin K)
–  Alpha tocopherol (Vitamin E)
–  Vitamin A
–  Ergocalciferol  (Vitamin D)
–  Antibiotics
–  Surgery
–  ERC
–  Percutaneous transhepatic Cholangiography
–  Removal of Gallbladder if appropriate

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