Learn more about Eye Anatomy: The eye is a very small portion of the body. But its importance can not be overstated.

The Anatomy of the Eye is very complex. Vision is considered the most used of the 5 senses.

The Anatomy of the Eye

1.)  Orbit

The orbit is essentially the eye socket that is formed by the combination of the cheekbone, nose, forehead and temple. Fat lines the inside of the orbit to hold the eye.

Lacrimal glands located near the upper and lower eye lids help produce tears to lubricate the eye. When foreign material enters the eye, lacrimal glands help wash away the eye. Tears drain through the Nasolacrimal duct in the inner corner of the eye help drain away tears and other items.

2.)  Eyelids and Eyelashes

These functional skin and hairs help protect the eye. When you blink, tears are spread through out the eye. Act as a filtering mechanism for foreign objects, dust, and debris

3.)  Conjunctiva

This is the clear layer of skin that covers the eye. It is very thin. This keeps foreign material and dust from getting imbedded into the eye.

4.)  Sclera

This is the white aspect of the eye. This is a tissue of the eye and is thick and rough. This tissue is what gives the eye its shape. Muscles that help with movement attach to this layer.

5.)  Cornea

This is is a smaller, clear layer that sits at the front and center of the eye. It covers the Iris, which is the colored part of the eye. When light comes at the eye, it’s the Cornea that helps focus it. Contact lenses cover the Cornea.

6.)  Anterior Chamber

This is a space behind the Cornea, but in front of the Iris. This space is filled with fluid called aqueous humor. This fluid nourishes the Cornea and Iris.

6.)  Iris

This is the colored portion of the eye. It controls the light amount that enters the eye. It is a ring shaped tissue and muscles fibers that surround the pupil. When the pupil contracts or constricts, its the muscles of the Iris that do this.

8.)  Pupil

This is at the central opening of the Iris. Contracts and Constricts depending on light brightness or darkness allowing the proper amount of light to enter. It works in conjunction with the Iris.

9.)  Lens

A clear and flexible structure behind the Iris and Pupil. Muscular tissue called ciliary body surrounds the Lens. The muscle and the Lens help control the fine focusing aspect.

10.)  Vitreous Cavity

This is a space behind the Lens and it sits in front of the Retina. It is filled with a gel-like fluid called vitreous humor. This also helps maintain the shape of the eye.

11.)  Retina

This layer helps create an image. Specialized cell change light into nerve signals. The Optic Nerve than takes these signals to the brain. The brain processes the image.

Retina has two main types of cells:

1.) Rods and 2.) Cones
.   Rods – sensitive to light – allow you to see in low light situations.
.   Cones – sensitive to color – need light to process color.

12.)  Macula

This is the central aspect of Retina This gives you sharp central vision.

13.)  Choroid

Layer of tissue that separates Sclera from Retina. Largely made up of blood vessels that nourish the Retina.

14.)  Optic Nerve

Over 1 million nerve fibers that transmit signal from eyes to the brain. Front of this nerve, near Retina is called the Optic disk.

Learn about Medical Conditions affecting the Eye

1.)  Retinal Detachment
2.)  Macular Degeneration
3.)  Retinal Artery Occlusion
4.)  Cataracts
5.)  Glaucoma
6.)  Hordeolum
7.)  Chalazion
8.)  Conjunctivitis
9.)  Papilledema