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Gestational Diabetes is an enhanced form of Diabetes Mellitus that is brought about by Pregnancy.

It is very similar to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Is when the glucose tolerance of the women is abnormal due to pregnancy or during pregnancy.

If an individual is diabetes prior to pregnancy, they are not considered to have gestational diabetes.

Although the individual may not be aware that they have diabetes prior to pregnancy and are learning about it during their pregnancy.

Occurs only during pregnancy and can be seen in up to 5% of all pregnancies.

Improvement and often complete resolution occurs following the delivery of the baby.

Insulin response and inadequate secretion are often the cause.

Observation and medical attention are necessary during the pregnancy.

Between 15% and 50% of women who experience gestational diabetes will, later in life, develop Type 2 diabetes.

The babies who are born to women with gestational diabetes are themselves at risk for being large for their size, low blood sugar, jaundice, and others.

 

Risk Factors:

  • Impaired Fasting Glucose
  • Ethnic Background
  • Family History of Diabetes
  • Overweight
  • Previous pregnancy resulting in large birth weight
  • Smoking
  • Polycystic Ovarian Disease

Complications that may occur with and/or without treatment:

  • Large Birth Weight
  • Induction of labour
  • Cesarean Section
  • Perinatal mortality

 

Screening:

Oral Glucose tolerance Test – (OGTT)

  • Will occur around 24-28 weeks’ gestation
  • Will report elevated glucose readings
  • When abnormal – probable gestational diabetes is present (when done during pregnancy)
  •  Should be done fasting
  • A follow-up OGTT should be done 2-4 months following birth

 

Treatment:

Dietary restrictions

Regular blood samples

Medications:

  • Insulin
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