Joints are the location of two bones that often are dependent on a central structure.

Joints allow movement, support, and structure to Bones and Ligaments.


From a structure viewpoint there are 3 categories:

1.)  Cartilaginous joints
2.)  Fibrous joints
3.)  Synovial joints


From a functions viewpoint there are 3 categories

1.)  Amphiarthrosis  –  Allows for minimal movement  –  most are cartilaginous joints
2.)  Diarthrosis – A large amount of movement  –  most are synovial joints
3.)  Synarthrosis –  Almost none to no movement  –  most are fibrous joints


Specific Types of Joints:

Suture joints – fibrous joints – found on skull between cranial sutures

Plane joints – synovial joint – ankle, hand – allow bones to glide to side of another bone

Hinge joints – synovial joint – Knee, elbow, fingers, and toes – allow for only bending
and straightening movements

Pivot joints – synovial joint – neck – allow for somewhat limited rotating movement

Ellipsoidial joint – synovial joint – wrist – allow for a more complicated movement – including
ball and socket movement, hinge movement.

Saddle joints – synovial joint – wrist – allow for other complex movements in two planes

Ball and socket joint – synovial joint – hip and shoulders – allow for forward and backward
movement along with sideways and rotating movements

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