Male Reproductive System

The Male Reproductive System is a complex system that includes a number of sex organs that form the male reproductive process.

The main sex organs are located in the pelvic region and outside the body.

The main sex organs are the penis and the testes.

Along with sperm formation and through sexual intercourse, the female can be fertilized and ovum can develop into a fetus.

Similar, but somewhat different sexual organs are seen in Women in their Female Reproductive System.


–  Sperm is the key for male reproduction and it is produced throughout the male reproduction system.

–   It is released by ejaculation and enters the vagina.

–   It travels through the cervix into the Uterus and in some cases continues into the fallopian tubes.

–   The egg has been released by an ovary in response to female reproduction.

–  Fertilization occurs when it attaches to the egg and the proper response then follows.

–  Pregnancy occurs within the female’s uterus and lasts for 9 months.

–  The primary function of this system is the production of male gamete also referred to as “spermatozoa“.

3 Categories of male reproductive organs

1.)   Production and storage
2.)  Ejaculatory Fluids
3.)  Copulation and deposit of sperm

Production and Storage


–  Testes is an important aspect of reproduction and Endocrine systems.
–  Typically there are two testicles within the scrotum
–  The testicles have very similar functions in men as Ovaries do in women.

The functions of the testicles are
– Sperm production
– Male sex hormones: testosterone


–  This is an extension of the abdomen.
–  The scrotum is the skin sac that holds the testes.
–  It is similar to the “labia majora” in females.
–  The function is related to temperature control of the testes.
–  Sperm must be stored at a specific temperature – too high and this may damage sperm count.
–  When cold – the testes are moved closer to the abdomen
–  Control of scrotum is by the “cremaster muscles


–  This a tubular region that is found adjacent and attaches to the testes
–  It connects the vas deferens and the testicles.
–  Sperm that is produced in the testes is then stored in the Epididymis
–  Sperm then matures during its storage.

There are 3 regions of the epididymis:

1.)  Head  [Caput]
2.)  Body  [Corpus]
3.)  Tail   [Cauda]

Ejaculatory Fluids

Seminal Vesicles

–  These are a pair of glands near the urinary bladder of males
–  The ducts of this gland open to the vas deferens then progress into the prostate.
–  The function of this vesicles is to produce the fluid that found along with semen.


–   The Prostate Gland helps in the production of semen, a fluid that helps transport and nourish sperm.
–   It is considered an exocrine gland of the male reproduction system.
–   Women do not have a prostate. The Skenes gland in women is the homologous organ.
–   The prostate helps store seminal fluid and spermatozoa.

Vas Deferens

–  This is a cord-like area that leads sperm from the epidymidis
–  Movement occurs during ejaculation
–  The sperm enters into the urethra

Copulation and Deposit of Sperm


– Is an external sexual organ
– Has 3 areas of tissue – 2 of the tissues are “corpora cavernosa” that are divided by the “corpus spongiosum
– The urethra travels in the middle of the penis


–  Urethra is the endpoint of the Urinary System.
–  Urine and other wastes start from Kidney and then to the Bladder prior to passing through the urethra
–  This tube connects the bladder to the outside of the body.
–  Role in reproduction is because the function of the urethra is a passageway for semen.

Cowper’s gland

–  An endocrine gland that is similar to “Bartholin’s glands” in females.
–  Found lateral to the urethra at that base of the penis
–  During sexual arousal – these glands produce a “pre-ejaculate”
–  The fluid helps lubrication of urethra to help sperm to pass through

Secondary Sexual Characteristics include:

.  Adam’s Apple
.  Increase in size of the body
.  Voice deepens
.  Facial hair