This system is a complex system that involves feedback and direction from other body systems and organs.
Humans produce around 1.5 liters of urine in a 24-hour period.
Urine is a byproduct of kidney function and helps the body eliminate waste.
There are several functions of the Urinary System
1.) Removal of Waste Products from the body
– Primarily Urea and Uric Acid
2.) Maintain Electrolyte Balance
– Regulation of Sodium, Calcium, Potassium, and others
3.) Acid-Base Regulation through balance and Homeostasis
4.) Controlling the volume of blood.
5.) Maintaining Blood pressure through Volume
Anatomical Aspects of This System Include:
– The kidney concentrates the urine by regulating electrolytes and removes the urea from the blood and other wastes.
– Urea is an organic compound that was discovered in 1773.
– This compound is soluble in water and is essentially a waste product.
– Production of urea occurs in the liver and is the result of the breakdown of some amino acids.
– The bladder is an organ that is hallow.
– It is layered similar to a balloon with several muscles that make up this organ.
– The muscle is a Smooth Muscle
– This allows the bladder to enlarge when it becomes full and small when empty.
– Overall the bladder can hold 400-620 ml but the maximum is twice this amount if outflow is obstructed.
– Males: The bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis.
– It is just above the prostate.
– This is the endpoint of the urinary system.
– Urine and other wastes start from kidney and then to the bladder prior to passing through the urethra and then out though the tip of the penis.
– This tube connects the bladder to the outside of the body.
– Control of excretion of urine is through the urethral sphincter
– Male: The urethra also has a role in sexual reproduction because the function of the urethra is a passageway for semen
– Average Urine production is 1-2 Liters per day
– This can change depending on medical conditions, water intake, activity level, weight, health, environment factors, and more.
– Filtration of the blood pulls out some waste and some fluid.
– Filtration happens in the kidneys – specifically in the nephrons.
– GFR or Glomerular Filtration Rate is the amount of Filtrate produced every minute.
– Kidney problems or failure can decrease this rate.
– Chemicals, hormones, and Body Systems help regulate the Urine Formation in very complicated manners.
– Urine is stored in the Bladder.
– Urination is often a voluntary control – you choose to urinate.
– Involuntary Reflex can happen with some meditations, medical conditions, and Neurological injury.
3 Definitions of Abnormal Urine Production
Polyuria – Excessive production of Urine
Oliguria – Very low output of Urine
Anuria – Unable to pass urine (or very little)