This system is a complex system that involves feedback and direction from other body systems and organs.
Humans produce around 1.5 liters of urine in a 24-hour period.
Urine is a byproduct of kidney function and helps the body eliminate waste.
There are several functions of the Urinary System
1.) Removal of Waste Products from the body
- Primarily Urea and Uric Acid
2.) Maintain Electrolyte Balance
- Regulation of Sodium, Calcium, Potassium, and others
3.) Acid-Base Regulation through balance and Homeostasis
4.) Controlling the volume of blood.
5.) Maintaining Blood pressure through Volume
Anatomical Aspects of This System Include:
- The kidney concentrates the urine by regulating electrolytes and removes the urea from the blood and other wastes.
- Urea is an organic compound that was discovered in 1773.
- This compound is soluble in water and is essentially a waste product.
- Production of urea occurs in the liver and is the result of the breakdown of some amino acids.
- The bladder is an organ that is hallow.
- It is layered similar to a balloon with several muscles that make up this organ.
- The muscle is a Smooth Muscle
- This allows the bladder to enlarge when it becomes full and small when empty.
- Overall the bladder can hold 400-620 ml but the maximum is twice this amount if outflow is obstructed.
- Males: The bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis.
- It is just above the prostate.
- This is the endpoint of the urinary system.
- Urine and other wastes start from kidney and then to the bladder prior to passing through the urethra and then out though the tip of the penis.
- This tube connects the bladder to the outside of the body.
- Control of excretion of urine is through the urethral sphincter
- Male: The urethra also has a role in sexual reproduction because the function of the urethra is a passageway for semen
- Average Urine production is 1-2 Liters per day
- This can change depending on medical conditions, water intake, activity level, weight, health, environment factors, and more.
- Filtration of the blood pulls out some waste and some fluid.
- Filtration happens in the kidneys – specifically in the nephrons.
- GFR or Glomerular Filtration Rate is the amount of Filtrate produced every minute.
- Kidney problems or failure can decrease this rate.
- Chemicals, hormones, and Body Systems help regulate the Urine Formation in very complicated manners.
- Urine is stored in the Bladder.
- Urination is often a voluntary control – you choose to urinate.
- Involuntary Reflex can happen with some meditations, medical conditions, and Neurological injury.
3 Definitions of Abnormal Urine Production
Polyuria – Excessive production of Urine
Oliguria – Very low output of Urine
Anuria – Unable to pass urine (or very little)