Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome – also known as NMS is a disorder that affects the neurological system and it can be life threatening. It is most often seen as an adverse reaction to medications – neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs.
Dopaminergic receptors in the brain are believed to be blocked.
It can result in a change of the Skeletal Muscle causing an increased in heat generation along with difficulty with regulation of temperature.
Increased dosing of medication increases risk on NMS.
Occurs in 0.2% of those taking the above mentioned medications.
– Muscle rigidity – *** usually one of the first symptoms
– Fever – *** usually one of the first symptoms
– Change in blood pressure
– Mental status changes
– Tremors of muscle
– Visual changes
Mnemonic – FEVER
F – Fever
E – Encephalopathy
V – Vitals unstable
E – Elevated Enzymes (CPK elevation)
R – Rigidity of muscles
– This is an emergent medical situation
– Death is possible without treatment
– Medication must be stopped initially
– Hospital visit
– Treat for fever
– Ice packs
– Placement in groin, under arms, and chest region
– Possible need for ventilation
. Dantrolene sodium
*** – in some cases when the drug causing this condition is restarted – a recurrence of symptoms may occur – but for the most part it does not.