pelvic_inflammatory_diseasePelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

This condition occurs following an infection of the upper genital tract. PID is seen in women and affects other female reproductive organs such as  Ovaries, Fallopian tubes and/or the Uterus.

It is often seen in women who are sexually active young females. Other risk factors may include – douching, self injury, use of foriegn objects, smoking, and more.

Forgetting to remove a tampon is also a large risk factor and this happens more than you think.

In many cases – it is often caused by bacteria called – N gonorrhoeae and Chlaymydia trachomatis both of which are sexually transmitted.

Infertility is a complication seen in thousands of women each year in the US. This ie especially seen if no treatment is started in the early stages.

Necrosis, Scarring and ectopic pregnancy can all be complications as well.

Most Common Symptoms:

–  Abdominal pain
–  Cramping
–  Chills
–  Fever
–  Nausea
–  Vomiting
–  Painful intercourse
–  Purulent discharge
–  Menstrual difficulties
–  Fatigue
–  Vaginal dryness


1.)  First aspect of diagnosis is based on symptoms, history, and reported risk factors. This may include the understanding that other treatments may have occurred and failed.

2.)  Urinalysis often needs to be done.

3.)  In some cases you may need to be seen in the hospital to receive further treatment especially if your pregnant or have not responded to other treatments.

4.)  Please remember – In the past it was recommended that all patients be hospitalized – but recent studies show mild to moderate symptoms still have good outcomes without hospitalization.

Other Microbes or Bacteria May Include:

–  Haemophilus influenzae
–  Anaerobes
–  Other microbes gram-negative
–  Streptococci
–  Protozoan
–  Fungi
–  And more


1.) Antibiotics

Acute Treatment

First Regimen
.    Cefoxitin
.    Cefotetan
.    plus Doxycycline can be added

Presence of Abscess add
.    Clindamycin
.    Metronidazole

Second Regimen
.    Clindamycin
.    Gentamycin
       .    Doxycycline may be added

Other medication more for at home dosages may include:
.    Ofloxacin
.    Levofloxacin

2.)  Surgical procedures may be appropriate depending on severity and presence of abscess.

3.)  Hospitalization