pelvic_inflammatory_diseasePelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition following an infection of the upper genital tract.

This is seen in women and affects -  Ovaries, Fallopian tubes and/or the Uterus.

Often seen in Sexually active young females.

Other factors may include – Douching and Smoking.

In many cases – it is often caused by bacteria called – N gonorrhoeae and Chlaymydia trachomatis both of which are sexually transmitted.

Other microbes may  include:

-  Haemophilus influenzae
-  Anaerobes
-  Other microbes gram-negative
-  Streptococci
-  Protozoan
-  Fungi
-  And more


-    Abdominal pain
-    Cramping
-    Chills
-    Fever
-    Nausea
-    Vomiting
-    Painful intercourse
-    Purulent discharge
-    Menstrual difficulties
-    Fatigue
-    Vaginal dryness


This is often initially based on symptoms.

Urinalysis often needs to be done.

Failure of other treatments may have occurred.

In some cases you may need to be seen in the hospital to receive further treatment especially if your pregnant or have not responded to other treatments.

In the past it was recommended that all patients be hospitalized – but recent studies show mild to moderate symptoms still have good outcomes without hospitalization.

Infertility is a complication seen in over 100,000 women each year in the US

Necrosis, Scarring and ectopic pregnancy can all be complications as well

Treatment – antibiotics

Acute Treatment

First Regimen
·         Cefoxitin
·         or Cefotetan
·         plus Doxycycline can be added

Presence of Abscess add
·          Clindamycin
·          Metronidazole

Second Regimen
·         Clindamycin
·         Gentamycin
·         Doxycycline may be added

Other medication more for at home dosages may include:
·         Ofloxacin
·         Levofloxacin

Surgical procedures may be appropriate depending on severity and presence of abscess.

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