Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides are a group of complex Carbohydrates that are made up of several simple monosaccharides. The Carbohydrates can be simple or complex.

Glycosidic bonds are bonds that hold separated monosaccharides together into the more complex sugars. But, Polysaccharides are not sweet in taste like monosaccharides

A Few Catagories of Carbohydrates Include:

–  Monosaccharides
–  Disaccharides
–  Olgiosaccharides

Classifications of Polysaccharides:

1.)  Homopolysaccharides –  all monosaccharides are the same

2.)  Heteropolysaccharides –  more than one different types of monosaccharides

Functions of Polysaccharides

1.)  Storage
2.)  Plant cellular structure
3.)  Found in many Bacteria for protection or metabolism

Examples:

1.) Starch

–  This is very similar to glycogen
–  However, it is found in plant cells
–  Also can be seen in some protists and bacteria.
–  Made up of Amylose and Amylopectin

2.)  Cellulose

–  A major component of the cellular structure of plants with a large amount in plant walls
–  It is very strong and helpful with support of the plant
–  It is specialized enough to allow water and some solutes to pass in and out of the cell.

3.)  Chitlin

–  This is similar to cellulose
–  Found in arthropods such as sponges and mollusks
–  Also found in cell walls of fungi and some algae

4.)  Glycogen

–  This is found in nearly all animal cells
–  It can also be found in some protozoa and algae
–  In mammals and humans, this compound is stored in the liver and muscles.
–  It is the main form of storage of carbohydrates in the body
–  Glycogen is thus broken down into glucose for use.
–  During a 24 hour fast – almost the entire reserve is consumed

5.)  Peptidoglycan

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