Pregnancy is a wonderful thing where the body has the ability to create an offspring. One or more offspring will be carried within the Uterus of a female. It can go very smoothly or can be a very complicated with a poor outcome. 

Pregnancy, the opportunity to create life can be overwhelming. It will change your body, your emotions, your priorities, your family, your life, and more. Being prepared for the changes is one of the most important things that you can do.

Often, being closely monitored during the process by a Licensed Medical Provider, greatly improves your chances for success.

Despite all the medical advancements, miscarriages and many other problems can be seen.

Delivery is often either Vaginal or Caesarean Section

When you are unable to get pregnant it is referred to as Infertility

The Beginning

–  Conception begins with the fertilization of an egg by a sperm through the Vagina.
–  The fetus or embryo will start from conception and continue to develop over time.
–  It often will attach in the Uterus and soon a Placenta is formed.
–  When Childbirth occurs, it is typically between 37 and 42 weeks from conception.
–  Any variation is abnormal but not always detrimental to the success of the child.
–  As medical advancement in childbirth continues – success is more likely and becomes more common.
–  However, the goal is for a term pregnancy in most cases.


–  Fertilization is the process and is also referred to as conception.
–  Occurs when the ovum (or egg) from a female and a sperm from a male become combined.
–  Also occurs in plants, bacteria, and other organism in separate manners.
–  When conception occurs than an embryo is formed and later a placenta.
–  Depending on organism fertilization can be internal or external


–  Childbirth occurs typically at 37 – 42 weeks.
–  Often calculation of pregnancy usually begins by looking back on a women’s last menstrual period
–  “At term”  –  means when 37 weeks has passed in the pregnancy but is less then 42 weeks
–  “Preterm”  –  means less then 37 weeks of pregnancy
–  “Postterm”  –  means more then 42 weeks of pregnancy
–  5% of births are on the due date
–  50% of births are within the week of the due date
–  90% of births are within two weeks of the due date
–  “Induced labor”  –  a decision made depending on circumstance and the length of pregnancy


–  Nausea
–  Vomiting
–  Fatigue
–  Craving for certain foods
–  Weight gain
–  Enlarging stomach
–  Swelling in legs
–  Decreased or Increase of appetite
–  Depression (in some cases)
–  Increased Emotions


  hCG or human chorionic gonadotropin (Blood Work)
–  Missed menstrual period
–  Increased basal temperature
–  Home pregnancy test with urine
.  Usually is not accurate until 12 days from conception
–  Sonography

3 significant Trimesters or Time Periods

1.) 1st Trimester

–  Weeks 1 – 13
–  Minimal bleeding at implantation into the uterus is not uncommon
–  Cramping is often present
–  Placenta growth is initiated
–  Growth of umbilical cord connecting the embryo with the placenta
–  Morning Sickness seen in 75%
–  Nipples may darken
–  Most miscarriages occur in the 1st trimester

2.) 2nd Trimester

–  Weeks 11 – 26
–  Months 4-6
–  Increased energy can occur
–  Fetus begins moving
–  Fetus extremities and organs begin to become recognizable (Typically on Ultrasound)
–  Male and female distinction can be seen

3.) 3rd Trimester

–  Weeks 27 – Childbirth
–  The largest amount of weight gain occurs during this period
–  Women’s belly drops due to positioning of fetus
–  Continued fetus movement
–  Women’s naval may be pushed outward
–  Very uncomfortable for women
–  Increased urine frequency
–  If premature childbirth during this period – survival is possible

Hormonal changes during pregnancy

–  Progesterone and Estrogen levels will rise during pregnancy
–  Prolactin levels will increase from Pituitary gland
–  Placental production of hormones increase as pregnancy advances
–  Gestational diabetes Gestational Diabetes is a risk for those who develops insulin resistance

Weight Gain During Pregnancy

–  This is the most noticeable change in pregnancy
–  Uterus, placenta, and fetus are all progressively enlarging
–  Water retention and additional fat also play a part
–  In the United States – recommended weight gain is 25 lbs – 40 lbs depending on weight
–  An overweight women should gain less while an underweight should gain more
–  Variation of weight gain has been 5 lbs to 100+ lbs

Exercise During Pregnancy

  Maintenance of exercise or beginning an exercise program are very beneficial while pregnant.
–  Exercise can improve health and decrease risk for stress, back pain, fatigue, and overall feeling of discomfort
–  This is not a “weight-loss program” but a “health program”
–  The level of which you exercised prior to pregnancy may need to change
–  Vigorous exercise may be harmful
–  If you never have been apart of a program please consult your medical provider but this often will not prevent you from exercising.
–  Learn More Here: Exercise During Pregnancy

Other Possible Changes to Your Health:


–  Increased blood volume
–  Increased heart rate
–  Change in blood pressure


–  Increased nutrition is required
–  Possible hormone changes and insulin resistance which can lead to gestational diabetes

Nutrition in Pregnancy

–  A well-balanced nutritional plan is essential for those planning to become pregnant and for those who are currently pregnant
–  Proper eating habits are beneficial for the health of the women preparing or pregnant and as importantly the health for your child
–  Several nutrients and food groups should be properly consumed
–  Several other foods should be avoided such as caffeine, raw meats and fish, raw eggs, and other such foods
–  Learn More Here:  Nutrition in Pregnancy

Drugs During Pregnancy

–  Several drugs are completely contraindicated while pregnant
–  Other drugs are concerning even while attempting or of child bearing age.
–  Drug use during pregnancy may be possible with certain drugs
–  Classification of drugs can be divided into A,B,C,D and X
–  The drugs not to be used during pregnancy are X, D, and often C
–  Any drug used during the embryo stages that has a permanent harmful effect is termed teratogen.
–  Learn more Here:  Drugs During Pregnancy

Sexual intercourse during pregnancy

–  Most women while pregnant can enjoy sexual intercourse.
–  Often frequency and desire decrease in most situations.
This is not encompassing of all women – a good amount of women indicate a greater amount of satisfaction while pregnant.
–  Medical concern is usually not seen during pregnancy however, rarely complications many be seen in a small population – typically in those with additional medical concerns in addition to the pregnancy.
–  The fetus is protected during intercourse by the women’s cervix
–  Following childbirth the average wait is 6 weeks but intercourse may resume once both couples are comfortable.


1.)  Gravid – Pregnancy

2.)  Nulligravida – A women who has never been pregnant

3.)  Multigravida – A women who has been pregnant one or more times

4.)  Multiparous – Subsequent pregnancies

5.)  Embyro – development of offspring from conception through the first 8 weeks

6.)  Fetus – starts from 2 month until birth

Potential Complications

1.)  Placenta previa

2.)  Placenta abruption

3.)  Pre-eclampsia

4.)  Braxton Hicks Contractions

5.)  Breech Birth

6.)  Episiotomy

7.)  Ectopic Pregnancy