A Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is when there is bleeding into the outer space around the Brain. There is a space between the brain and tissues that cover the brain – this area is called the subarachnoid space.

On the outer portion of the brain area is the pia mater and the tissues is called arachnoid membrane.

This can occur following a hemorrhagic stroke.

Symptoms and complications can occur very quickly and this diagnosis is considered a medical emergency

Occurs in less than 10% of all strokes.

Causes:

–  Head trauma
–  Brain aneurysm
–  Tumors
–  Bleeding disorders
–  Excessive use of blood thinners (overdose)
–  Cocaine abuse
–  Unknown

In the elderly, falls can be a large cause of such bleeding in the brain.

Motor Vehicle Accidents (MVA) is another large component of head trauma

Symptoms:

–  Headache
–  Stiff neck
–  Nausea
–  Vomiting
–  Confusion
–  Loss of consciousness
–  Changes in blood pressure
–  Seizures
–  Coma
–  Death

Diagnosis

–  CT scan of brain is extremely helpful

–  Lumbar puncture may be helpful in some cases.

Treatment:

–  Emergency room management
–  Blood pressure control
–  Craniotomy  (Cutting a hole in the skull)
–  Neurosurgeon

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