thyroid-cancer

Thyroid Cancer can be significant and is seen in several forms.

The Thyroid is an important gland that functions some control of body metabolism.

Less than 5% of nodules found on exam actually are a result of cancer.

Symptoms:

  • Nodule or growth in the neck region
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Lymph node enlargement
  • Weakness
  • Loss of weight
  • Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in some cases
  • Symptoms of hypothyroidism in some cases

Types:

1.)  Papillary
2.)  Follicular
3.)  Medullary
4.)  AnaplasticImage result for Thyroid cancer

Papillary Tumor

  • This is the most common type of thyroid cancer in the United States.
  • Is often seen in women between ages 30s and 40s and is also seen in children
  • Can occur following radiation of the head and neck
  • Severity is widely variable
  • Can metastasize to cervical lymph nodes
  • Treatment is usually surgery

Follicular Tumor

  • Occurs in women whose age is over 50
  • Thyroglobulin is a tumor marker used
  • Can metastasize to bone or lungs
  • Treatment is surgery and radiation

Medullary Tumor

  • Is a tumor that arises from “parafollicular cells”
  • Calcitonin is typically produced from these cells
  • Calcitonin may be elevated in the presence of this tumor
  • Carcinoembyronic antigen (CEA) is another tumor marker
  • There may be a genetic component to this cancer
  • Treatment is surgery
  • Radioiodine therapy is not beneficial in this tumor
  • Prognosis is worse then papillary and follicular tumors

Anaplastic Tumor

  • Also referred to as undifferentiated
  • Is considered more aggressive
  • Is also more resistant to treatment
  • Is quickly found in tissue outside the thyroid
  • Surgery is less beneficial
  • Radiation therapy and chemotherapy is mildly helpful

Diagnosis

  • Biopsy with a fine needle is essential for determination of cancer and classification
  • Blood work is essential for tumor markers or other thyroid hormones
  • Ultrasound is important

Treatment

Largely depends on the classification

  • Surgery
  • Radioiodine
  • Chemotherapy
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