Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a unique set or group of Vitamins that are lipophilic and hydrophobic. Chemically this set of vitamins has a methylated naphthoquinone ring and a side chain.

Vitamin K is essential for the synthesis of proteins that are part of the system for blood coagulation. The body needs vitamin K to help bind calcium to bones and other tissues.

In the absence of vitamin K, uncontrolled bleeding can occur. Weakened bones, calcification of arteries, and other soft tissue can occur with low levels of vitamin K.


Vitamin K1 – phylloquinone

Vitamin K2 – menaquinone – produced by bacteria in the intestines

Vitamin K3 – synthetic form – used in the pet food industry

Vitamin K4 – the synthetic form

Vitamin K5 – synthetic form – used to stop fungal growth


– Spinach
– Cauliflower
– Broccoli
– Brussel sprouts
– Avocado
– others


– Necessary in Blood Coagulation
– Important in bone metabolism
– Co-enzyme
– Cofactor
– others


– Bleeding
– Anemia
– Bruising
– Newborns are at risk
– Those with a damaged liver are at risk

Toxicity – is rather rare for most forms