COPDChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease also known as COPD is when serious and potentially deadly obstruction of airflow is seen.

It is chronic in nature or has been an issues for many years.

It occurs when the airways leading to the Lungs become narrow.

Is often the result of chronic conditions such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema.

Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of COPD

Other pollutants can also be associated such as dust, chemicals, and pollution.

As a result of such chemicals, changes in lung function can be seen in those with COPD.

Smoking alone accounts from 70-80% of COPD cases.

Typically seen in someone older than 60


-    Cough is the most consistent symptom
-    Dyspnea (Shortness of breath)
-    Sputum
-    Difficulty breathing with or without exercise, among others
-    Fatigue
-    Wheezing
-    Cyanosis
-    Chest enlargement

*** Cor pulmonale may be a complication of late stage COPD



X-ray imagining can be somewhat helpful

Breathing Tests


copdComplications of COPD

COPD can have episodes of worsening and improving – during some worsening time other additional conditions can occur

-    Acute Bronchitis
-    Heart failure
-    Pulmonary hypertension or high blood pressure
-    Pneumonia
-    Respiratory failure
-    And others


Prevention is attained through no long-term smoking

·        Transdermal patch
·        Nicotine gum
·        Chantix
·        Bupropion

Oxygen is often essential in moderate to severe COPD


Anticholinergics Medications and others

·        Ipratropium bromide
·        Albuterol
·        Metaproterenol

Oral Theophylline



·        Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
·        Amoxicillin
·        Amoxicillin-clavulanate
·        Doxycycline

Surgery may be appropriate in some cases
-   Lung transplantation
-   Volume capacity surgery – Lung reduction

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