Diabetes is a very complicated and life threatening medical condition that is often misunderstood. It affects millions of people around the world. It is heavily studied and tested. New medications are always being tested and new diets constructed to help those affected. This condition is largely associated with Glucose and Insulin in the body.
The risks, consequences, and potential complications of diabetes is very serious and medication, doctor visits, healthy eating, exercise, are all required in the treatment and management of this condition.
It is also known as Diabetes Mellitus and is a medical condition that largely affects metabolism. There are different types of this disease.
Type 1 often, but not always, affects those that are young. They require insulin only. Their pancreas no longer creates insulin. Type 2 often, but not always affects those that are older and overweight. But, additional patients may have Type 2 that don’t fall into this category. Often medications begin as oral medications, but later on, as the disease progresses, even Type 2 diabetics may require insulin.
The Three Primary Symptoms (though there are more)
1.) Frequent urination (Polyuria)
2.) Increased thirst (Polydipsia)
3.) Increased hunger (Polyphagia).
Diabetes at a Glance
High levels of blood sugar or glucose is at the center of this condition. High blood glucose is also called hyperglycemia. Glucose, from what we eat, circulates in the blood, waiting to be allowed into the cells and tissues of the body.
Insulin combines with glucose and the molecule is then allowed into the cell where it is used as energy. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. In other cases, the problem may not be directly related to the pancreas lack of production of insulin but rather the body’s inability to process or use insulin properly.
In essence the body is not responding to the insulin in the blood stream. Diabetes is a group of diseases that have a similar problem or action.
Types of Diabetes include:
Diabetes Type 1
– It is a form of Diabetes Mellitus
– Also known as “juvenile“, “childhood“, and “insulin-dependant” diabetes.
– This is primarily as result of an autoimmune disease – body attacking oneself.
– Pancreas cells, where insulin is produced, are often destroyed
– Children are often affected by type 1 diabetes, but, adults can also be affected.
Symptoms of Type 1
– Glucose in urine [Glycosuria]
– Increased frequency to urinate
– Increased thirst
– Weight loss
– Overall cause is generally unknown
– Some believe a virus may be involved
– Genetics may play a part as well.
– Moderation of carbohydrates
– Moderation of caloric intake
– Glycemic index
– Low Carb diet
Insulin is required as a treatment in almost all cases.
If insulin is not given – consequences and complications are almost always seen.
Diabetes Type 2
– It is another form of Diabetes Mellitus
– Also called or referred to as “Adult-Onset Diabetes”.
– This is fundamentally different then Type 1 Diabetes
– Involvement of Diabetes Type 2 is associated with a resistance to insulin or a decrease in sensitivity to glucose
– Environmental exposures
Treatment is several oral medications and occasionally insulin is required
– It is very similar to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
– Is when the glucose tolerance of the women is abnormal due to pregnancy or during pregnancy.
– Therefore, if an individual is diabetic prior to pregnancy – then they would not be considered to have gestational diabetes.
– Although the individual may not be aware that they have diabetes prior to pregnancy and are learning about it during their pregnancy.
– Occurs only during pregnancy and can be seen in up to 5% of all pregnancies.
– Symptoms and problems tend to resolve once the baby is delivered.
– May lead to induction of labor or cesarean section.
Treatment for Diabetes
– Treatment options largely dependent on type of diabetes
1.) Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
2.) Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
3.) Regular Insulin (Novoling R, Humulin R)
4.) NPH Insulin (Novolin N, Humulin N)
5.) Insulin detemir (Levemir)
6.) Insulin glargine (Lantus, Basaglar, Toujeo)
7.) Insulin degludec (Tresiba)
8.) Premixed Insulin 70/30 (70%N and 30%R) and 50/50 (50% N and 50%R)
– Insulin for Type 1 and 2
– Oral medications for Type 2
– Delivery of fetus for gestational
– Weight loss may help Type 2
Exercise and dieting can drastically improve the risks and complications that are associated with diabetes.
There is no cure for diabetes